Operations & Logistics :

The field of operations and logistics focuses on making sure that the right amount and quality of materials and goods are produced and delivered to the correct recipients according to schedule. The work involves production and service operations, with operations and logistics workers responsible for managing the supply chain, from purchasing raw materials to the production cycle to end delivery.
In business operations, operations and logistics managers implement and manage systems for “efficient deployment of personnel, physical facilities, in-process inventories, finished goods, and related information or services,” as defined by the Business Department of the University of Missouri—Saint Louis.
Operations is also known as supply chain management. The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals defines supply chain management as the planning and management of all activities for sourcing and procurement, conversion, and logistics management activities.
This type of work also entails coordinating and collaborating with suppliers, intermediaries, third-party service providers, and customers. In addition to manufacturing operations, supply chain management coordinates the business processes and activities across marketing, sales, product design, finance, and information technology.
Logistics management covers inbound and outbound transportation management, fleet distribution products, which gave rise to management, warehousing, materials handling, order fulfillment, logistics network design, inventory management, supply/demand planning, and management of third-party logistics service providers.
Operations and logistics workers are needed for scheduling and overseeing trucking, tracking inventory, mapping out the delivery of merchandise, and storing and handling products and materials.
  • organising shipments

  • coordinating drivers, vehicles, loads and journeys

  • operating IT systems

  • negotiating and agreeing contracts

  • developing and confirming schedules

  • planning for and negotiating technical difficulties

  • preparing paperwork for regulatory bodies

  • liaising with and managing staff and shifts

  • waste management

  • monitoring stock

  • ensuring health and safety standards are met

Working hours can vary depending on the industry and the type of employer. Some jobs can require working evenings and weekends, and others involve shift work and on-call duties.
Any graduate can become logistics or distribution managers. Various large organisations such as Royal Mail and DHL run graduate schemes with a logistics or supply chain stream. These roles are likely to involve a heavy element of management, whether that’s managing a warehouse shift, stock taking, or a fleet of vehicles.
An apprenticeship is another way into a logistics career but are unlikely to include positions of management straight away. Employers may advertise apprenticeships on their websites or in the local press.
Operations and logistics professionals work in manufacturing, federal government, companies and enterprises, wholesale trade, and professional, scientific, and technical services. Some companies have logistical departments, where logicians and logistics managers work. Freight-shipping companies also employ operations and logistics managers.

Typical employers of logistics and distribution managers
  • Specialist distribution companies

  • Manufacturers

  • The armed forces

  • Major commercial organisations

  • Retailers

  • Teamwork skills

  • Managerial skills

  • The ability to motivate others

  • Interpersonal skills

  • Logical reasoning

  • Numeracy skills

  • IT skills

  • The ability to plan ahead and deal with unexpected changes

Logistics Operations Manager Salaries
  • Salary Walmart Logistics Operations Manager salaries : $71,855

  • Uber Logistics Operations Manager salaries : $76,741US

  • Army Logistics Operations Manager salaries : $70,524US

  • Army Logistics Operations Manager salaries : $5,497/mo

Logicians earn the highest salaries in the following areas: oil and gas extraction; highway, street, and bridge construction; other specialty trade contractors; petroleum and petroleum products merchant wholesalers; and business, professional, labor, political, and similar organizations.





Microbiology course is a study of biology of all microorganism like bacteria ,viruses, protozoa and fungi. They do the research required for the future against diseases worldwide and work to exploit microbes in the production of food.
The main focus is the pathogenic potential of the organisms that cause the disease and it covers biochemistry, physiology and genetics of microorganisms.
  • Plan and conduct Complex research products such as sterilization procedure and developing new drugs against infectious diseases.

  • Performing laboratory experiments that are used in diagnosis and treatment of illnesses.

  • Isolate and maintain cultures of bacteria and other microorganisms for study and collect specimens from humans, plants and animals. are the environment of microorganisms and plants and humans for the environment.

  • They research and report to scientists and other executives and make recommendations to the governments.

Mainly medical microbiologist work with biomedical scientists in microbiology laboratory and clinical staff and Hospital. They play a pivotal role in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with infections and monitor the spread of resistance to drugs and educate health professionals on the use of antibiotics
Microorganisms and their activities are involved in every step of the food supply chain understanding and manipulating microbial activities will lead to the development of novel strategies that may contribute to improving food security, management of food commodities and reductions in spoilage.
Food security is an immensely Complex issue and is affected by multiple factors. Several works are there because microbiology has great potential to offer solutions, it can help reduce the food spoilage and outbreaks of food borne illnesses increase the food production and creating foods.
Microbiology has the ability to make the improvements in food production that are required to feed the growing World Population.
So, it is meeting the Global challenges of the food supply. Main role lies behind the current food safety practices and reducing the acceptable levels of food borne illnesses and losses due to microbial spoilage. For increasing food production, biocontrol agents, soil microbiology, biofertilizer, biopesticides and alternative sources of energy and nutrients in microbes are used as food and biofuels.
  • Bachelor of Science in Microbiology

  • Bachelor of Science in Applied Microbiology

  • Bachelor of Science in Food Technology

  • Bachelor of Science in Industrial Microbiology

  • Bachelor of Science in Biochemistry

  • All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

  • Christian Medical College, Vellore

  • Armed forces Medical college, Pune

  • Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore.

  • Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi

  • Jawaharlal Institute of postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry

  • Madras Medical College, Chennai

  • Grant Medical College,Mumbai

  • King George Medical University, Lucknow.

  • B.J. Medical College, Ahmedabad



Forestry is the art and science of managing forests, trees plantations and related natural resources.
The main goal of forestry is to create and implement systems that allow forest to continue a sustainable provision of environmental supplies and services.
Forests form part of the vital natural resources of a country. From time immemorial forest resources have been a source of human sustenance. They are home to the most amazing herbs, medicinal compounds, natural cosmetics etc. Forestry and Wildlife go together since forests serve as home for wildlife.
Forest wealth also contributes significantly to the economy of the country. Specially trained personnel are therefore needed to maintain and regenerate the forest cover, forest wealth and resources.
A practitioner of forestry is known as a Forester.
What does a Forester do?
  • Foresters are involved in many activities that include ecological restoration, timber harvesting, and protection of natural resources.

  • Their role exists in choosing sites for new trees.

  • They develop forest management plans for public and privately-owned forested lands.

  • They are also involved in the planning and supervising of forestry projects.

  • Promote a sustainable economy through renewable forest products.

Various courses are available in the field of forestry. You can pursue forestry courses at graduate, postgraduate, diploma as well as at Ph.D. level.
Bachelor’s Courses
  • Bachelor of Science in Forestry

  • Bachelor of Science in Wildlife

  • Bachelor of Science in Tree Improvement and Genetic Resources

  • Bachelor of Science in Forestry

Eligibility Criteria If you have passed your intermediate examination with PCB group then you are eligible for this course. The duration of B.Sc forestry professional course is 4 years.
Master’s Courses:
  • Master of Science in Forestry

  • Master of Science in Wildlife

  • Master of Science in Wood Science & Tech.

  • Master of Science in Agroforestry

  • Master of Science in Forest Products

  • Master of Science in Tree Improvements

  • Master in Wildlife Sciences

  • Post Graduate Diploma in Forest Management

Eligibility Criteria – To be eligible for master’s course, one must have a bachelor’s degree in relevant discipline. The duration of this course is 2 years.
Postgraduate courses in forestry are offered in the following specializations:
  • Forest Management

  • Silviculture

  • Forest products

  • Commercial Forestry

  • Forest Economics

  • Wood Science & Technology

  • Wildlife Science

  • Agroforestry

  • Tree Genetics and Breeding

For higher specialized works, you have to earn the highest degree in the field of forestry.
Some other certificate & diploma course in Forestry are listed here:
  • Certificate Course in Wildlife Management

  • Diploma in Zoo and Wild Animal Health Cure and Management

  • Post Graduate Diploma in Forestry Management (PGDFM)

  • Post Master’s Diploma Non Wood Forest Products

How to get admission in Forestry courses?
  • One can apply for the bachelor’s course in forestry after clearing the 10+2 examination with PCB/PCM/PCMB group.

  • The candidates who have passed All India Entrance Exam of ICAR are eligible for admission to agricultural Universities that offers forestry courses.

  • Various Universities/institutions conduct their own entrance examination for providing admission.

  • Forest Research Institute University invites application for admission to M.Sc programmes through FRI University Admission Test.

Jobs & Career Scope
A lot of career opportunities is available in this field. The career opportunities are available in public as well as in private sector.
Some working areas where you can find jobs after pursuing courses in the field of Forestry are:
  • Educational Institutions

  • Seed and Nursery Companies

  • Forest Services

  • Food Companies

  • Land Management Agencies

  • Plant Health Inspection Services

  • Plant Resources Laboratories

  • Biotechnology Firms

  • Biological Supply Houses

  • Chemical Industry

The job profiles in forestry is as follows:
  • Forester

  • Forest Range Officer

  • Lecturers

  • Forestry Technicians

  • Forest Officer

  • Forestry Staff

  • Forest Professionals

  • Natural Resource Technician

  • Operations Forester

  • Senior Forestry Consultant

  • Foresters Silviculturist

  • Field Investigator

  • Sales/Business Development Officer

  • Teacher or Lecturer

  • Auditor – Forestry

A forester earns an average salary of $47,548 annually in abroad. Depending upon experience and qualification, you can earn an annual salary of around Rs. 5 to 6 lacs in India.
Salary packages offered in this field are very high for the well experienced candidates.
The Universities/colleges that offers forestry courses in India are as follows:
  • Dr BR Ambedkar University, Uttar Pradesh

  • B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar

  • Arid Forest Research institute, Jodhpur

  • Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal

  • Forest Research Institute University, Dehradun

  • Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Himachal Pradesh

  • Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun

  • Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur

  • Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore


Agricultural engineering:

Create better ways to farm…
Agricultural Engineering involves creating and improving machineries for  agricultural production and processing. Their work revolves around developing equipment for agricultural industries, working on irrigation projects and conserving the resources.
Agricultural engineers work off and on-site depending upon the tasks involved. It also provides platform for designing and researching new technology for farming. For example, such fuels that could economically and sustainabily replace gasoline without jeopardizing the food supply.
They design and build agricultural infrastructure such as dams, water reservoirs, warehouses, and other structures.
Agriculture Engineering is a technologically sophisticated field that offers bright career prospects and opportunity in any country around the world. Some of the higher study options for the B.Tech graduates in agriculture are:
M.Tech in Agricultural Engineering, M.Tech in Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, M.Tech in Renewable Energy, M.Sc in Rural Technology, PhD in Agri Informatics, PhD in Rural Technology.
Well-paid careers are available for qualified agricultural engineers in Government and public sector organizations, agribusiness firms, food processing and retail industry, research organizations and laboratories, banks and financial corporations, central and state government organizations and private firms.
The graduates also get hired by NC Department of Transportation and NC Department of Agriculture.


  • Design agricultural machinery components and equipment, using computer-aided design (CAD) technology

  • Test agricultural machinery and equipment to ensure that they perform properly

  • Design food-processing plants and supervise manufacturing operations

  • Plan and direct construction of rural electric-power distribution systems

  • Design structures to store and process crops

  • Design housing and environments to maximize animals’ comfort, health, and productivity

  • Provide advice on water quality and issues related to managing pollution, controlling rivers, and protecting and using other water resources

  • Design and supervise environmental and land reclamation projects in agriculture and related industries

  • Discuss plans with clients, contractors, consultants, and other engineers so that the plans can be evaluated and any necessary changes made

  • Farming Industry Consultants

  • Agricultural Commodities Processors

  • AMUL Dairy

  • ITC

  • Escorts

  • Nestle India

  • Proagro Seed


  • Frigorifico Allana

  • Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi

  • TamilNadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore

  • Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana

  • National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal

  • Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar